Section 1 - Track 3

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Andrey Mezhenin and Timur Gruzdev
The use of diffractive optical elements for laser cutting of sheet cardboard
With the development of high-power CO2-lasers, the manufacture of sheet cardboard products (folding packaging boxes, gaskets, game puzzles, etc.) has been greatly simplified due to the transition from stamping technology to automated laser cutting. One of the ways to expand the technological capabilities of laser processing, in particular, increasing the speed and accuracy, is the use of diffractive optical elements. The implementation of several connected parallel processes can be achieved through the use of multi-order diffraction beam splitters a for cutting along symmetrical contours with using technological laser. Experiments those show the possibility of dividing the initial laser beam by diffraction splitters into several beams with a fixed angle between them have been performed. To simulate the separation of thin-sheet cardboard has been used the finite element method both with the preservation of cells in the cutting zone and with the removal of cells where the fracture temperature is reached. The results confirm the feasibility of the practical implementation automated laser cutting technology of thin-sheet cardboard.

Stanislav Sergunin and Stanislav Krasnov
Focusing of pulsed laser linearly polarized Gaussian beams using refractive microaxicons
In this work, using the Lumeric software product, focusing calculations were performed for pulsed laser linearly polarized Gaussian beams using refractive microaxicons. The change in the focal spot from the magnitude of the refracting microaxicon and the pulse time is shown.

Gregory Pchelkin, Varvara Fadeenko and Vadim Davydov
Multifunctional fiber-optic system for transmitting microwave signals in the frequency range from 0.135 to 40 GHz
The paper presents the developed design of a fiber optic system for transmitting microwave signals in radar stations. Using the developed design of a fiber-optic system for transmitting a microwave signal allows you to increase the operating frequency range of the radar at least twice and increase its functionality. A new method is proposed for constructing the design of a fiber-optic system for transmitting a microwave signal. Its use made it possible to reduce the number of functional units in a fiber-optic system compared with previously used structures to ensure the operation of the radar in this frequency range. The results of experimental studies are presented.

Semen Logunov, Vadim Davydov, Nikita Myazin and Vasiliy Rud
Development of an optical imaging system to study the parameters of a magnetic track from a moving object
The necessity of studying the magnetic track from a moving object is substantiated. An optical system has been developed to detect a magnetic track at sea depth from a moving magnetic object. A method of processing and decoding optical images formed using a ferrofluid cell and laser radiation is proposed. The results of experimental studies are presented.

Michael Osipov and Roman Sergeev
Analysis image formation in double exposure speckle photography
The paper presents theoretical and experimental results of analysing the formation of a focused image in double-exposure speckle photography. A theoretical analysis of the formation of a focused image in double-exposure speckle photography was performed using the Vander Lugt method. It is shown that moiré fringes are formed as a result of the summation of speckle structures displaced in the space of the photographic plate. Experimental results confirming theoretical research are presented.

Alexey Raku, Alexander Degtyarev, Alexander Shirokanev, Aliona Kibitkina, Nataly Ilyasova and Andrey Zolotarev
Study of the thermal field of the retina of the Human eye in the laser exposure zone during numerical simulation based on the solution of the heat equation in the layered region
In this article, modeling of the propagation of laser radiation in the layered structures of the fundus is available in order to study the thermal fields arising in the retina and epithelial layer, as well as to achieve the best parameters and search for factors that affect treatment. Modeling the temperature distribution in such hard-to-reach tissues is a necessary and necessary task. In sufficient efficiency. It must be understood that the temperature can be achieved with certain parametric parameters. The results were obtained using numerical solutions. For quantitative solutions, the finite difference method and explicit difference schemes were used.

Alexey Porfirev and Anna Dubman
Advanced photophoresis-based laser trapping in air
We use structured laser beams for laser trapping and manipulation of light-absorbing particles in air. Non-Gaussian laser profile of such laser beams opens up the possibilities for realizing not only laser trapping but laser rotation and the guiding of trapped particles.

Hanh Hong Mai
New construction design of a fluorescent imaging filter set based on TiO2/SiO2
This study presents a new construction design of a filter set for fluorescent imaging applications. The filter set includes three filters: one excitation, one emission and one dichroic filter. The filters are DBR filters which consist of alternating thin film layers of TiO2/SiO2. A needle technique was applied as a synthesis method to optimize the spectral performances of the filters by adjusting a proper number of layers with controlling thickness. As a proof of concept, the filters are designed to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of fluorescent emission from FITC 488 dye. The obtained results show that the optimized filters represent advanced spectral performance which can be used to improve the sensitivity and the imaging contrast in fluorescence microscopy.

Alexey Dzyuba, Sergey Popov and Pavel Serafimovich
Phase apodization of imaging system in separate color channels for extending depth of field
The binary optical element for phase apodization of the pupil function of the optical system is calculated in the paper. This optical element provides an increase in the depth of focus of the optical system through at least one color channel for a certain value on the optical axis. The optimization of the binary optical element was performed by simulating annealing. It is shown that the calculated optical element provides an increase in the depth of focus of the optical system by about two times compared with an optical element based on a binary axicon. The calculated optical element can be used in machine vision problems for image classification.

Robert Bielak, Serguei Murzin, Gerhard Liedl, Andreas Otto and Nikolay Kazanskiy
Modeling of temperature fields in DP1000 steel during laser treatment using diffractive optical elements
Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with their unique properties allow to form a predetermined beam intensity profile in the focal plane. The use of DOEs in laser material processing technologies reveals new possibilities for controlling the properties and operational characteristics of processed parts. The beam intensity profile formed by DOE is presented in the form of an analytical expression that used to set a surface heat source for modeling thermal processes in DP1000 steel. Experimental studies of samples under laser heating were performed. Simulation output results correlate well with the experimental data. The proposed simulation model, based on a precise heat input definition, is an intermediate step to the final goal, which is the prediction of structural changes in the zone of laser beam irradiation.

Anastasia Shatskaya and Dmitry Artemyev
Human skin model for spatially-resolved fluorescence registration using different fiber optic system configuration
This work presents a multicomponent six-layer model of human skin to simulate the skin fluorescence response in different spectral ranges. The skin model was developed considering the features of the propagation and collection of radiation by optical fibers and the absorbing properties of individual skin layers. The skin model also contained the main endogenous fluorophores, which make the largest contribution to the fluorescence spectrum. Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence signal registration using fiber optic probes was carried out, and the ability of different fiber optic systems configurations to selectively register fluorescence from certain skin layers was evaluated.

Roland Fuerbacher, Gerhard Liedl and Serguei Murzin
Investigations on the spatial frequency transition of Laser induced periodic surface structures
This research shows the influence of laser fluence and pulse number on the spatial frequency distribution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on a stainless steel surface. Also the transition of LIPSS to larger self organized, periodic, cone-like structures has been investigated. Experiments were carried out using a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system with 800 nm centre wavelength, a pulse duration of 30 fs and a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Experiments have been carried out on flat, cold-rolled stainless steel surfaces (1.4301) by variation of the laser output power and feed rate. It could be shown, that the transition of low spatial frequency LIPSS to high spatial frequency LIPSS is a continuous process, strongly depending on the laser single pulse fluence and the pulse number. At higher accumulated fluences the transition of LIPSS to larger self organized structures could be observed. As a result, hierarchical structures were created with micrometer-sized cones at the bottom and nanometer-sized LIPSS on top. By further increasing the accumulated fluence, the grooves between the micro structures are widend until the ablation threshold of the alloy is reached. These hierarchical structures could be of considerable value in improving hydrophobic properties of technical surfaces.

Serguei Murzin, Andrey Tisarev and Maksim Blokhin
Calculation of thermal processes during laser treatment of dual phase steel using element of diffractive computer optics
Experimental studies of the formation of CO2 laser beam by a reflective diffractive optical element have been performed. A formula is obtained that describes the distribution of power density in the form of an equation for a rectangular-shape heat source. Calculation of thermal processes under laser action was made, taking into account changes in the absorption coefficient of the surface of the processed material using the computer cluster “Sergey Korolev”. To determine temperature fields that occur during laser treatment of the dual phase steel DP 1000, the CFX version 15.0 computational gas dynamics program was used. It was revealed that for the selected processing mode and the integrated value of coating absorption of 0.5, the maximum temperature on the front surface exceeds the liquidus temperature for the processed sheet material, and on the back side is in the range of white heat.

Anton Krents, Nonna Molevich and Liza Yarunova
Optical extreme events in laser with optoelectronic feedback
We study a theoretical model describing a laser with a positive optoelectronic feedback. Strong time-delayed positive optoelectronic feedback driving losses of the laser leads to rare pulses with extremely large amplitude, called rogue waves.

Elizaveta Grakhova, Guzel Abdrakhmanova, Arsen Ishmiyarov, Irina Vinogradova, Ivan Meshkov, Albert Sultanov, Valeriy Bagmanov and Azat Gizatulin
Development of a beam-forming circuit for an antenna array operating in the W-band
The paper presents the development of a beam-forming circuit for an antenna array operating in the range of 75-110 GHz. The proposed device is based on the Rotman lens, the shape of which is calculated taking into account the configuration of the antenna array and the required states of its radiation pattern. The Rotman lens circuit has three input ports corresponding to three output radio beams carrying different states of the orbital angular momentum. The application of such a beam-forming scheme can significantly reduce the overall dimensions of the antenna system and can be implemented in the microstrip technology in analog to the antenna array.

Lyudmila Bratchenko, Ekaterina Abrosimova, Sergey Stafeev, Elena Tupikova, Ekaterina Borisova and Ivan Bratchenko
Сonventional Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for human skin components analysis
In the current study the spectral characteristics of amino acids such as arginine, lysine, glycine, tyrosine, cystine are investigated. The comparative analysis results of the characteristics of arginine, lysine, glycine, tyrosine obtained using Raman scattering in the visible region (central wavelength of 532 nm) and Raman scattering in the near infrared region (central wavelength of 785 nm) are presented. In addition, the possibility of using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in the near infrared region (central wavelength of 785 nm) was analyzed using cystine as an example. The revealed spectral features of the studied amino acids can be used as models for studying the topology of proteins and peptides in human skin during the presence of pathological processes in the body.

Serguei Murzin, Nikolay Kazanskiy, Gerhard Liedl, Robert Bielak, Alexey Melnikov and Stanislav Osipov
Study of structure of dual phase steel after laser heat treatment using moving distributed surface heat sources
Dual phase steels are characterized by structurally sensitive properties and can be modified using various combinations of heating and cooling parameters. Using scanning electron microscopy, a structure of a dual phase steel in cross sections of heat-affected zones after a laser heat treatment using moving distributed surface heat sources were studied. As a result of the laser treatment, structures in the steel are formed whose properties are determined by the initial structure, a laser exposure time, a heating temperature, and also rates of the heating and the cooling of the metal material. The thermal effect can be controlled within wide limits by changing parameters of the laser beam and processing conditions. This provides the opportunity to obtain a given structure of the processed material and required properties.

Muslim Gubaev and Sergey Degtyarev
Calculation of the rays path in an axicon with a small opening angle
Programm has been developed that allows one to calculate the path of rays through refractive surfaces. Development was conducted in programming language Python 3.7. Also the class diagram was build. The program allows you to build a tree of rays, while taking into account the reflection and refraction on the surface. The beam path through a two-dimensional axicon with a small opening angle is calculated.

Margarita Rodionova
Ultracompact imaging spectrometer based ring type structures
The object of research is lens with a ring type structure which will allow get an ultracompact hyperspectrometer in the future. This construct is based on a reflective harmonic lens. The propagation of rays inside the lens was calculated based on the principles of geometric optics with artificial input of diffraction dispersion; the point scattering function was obtained.

Denis Praporshchikov, Daria Ivanova, Maria Ivanova, Anton Bourdine and Vladimir Burdin
Potential opportunities of axial mismatch in input attachment unit of few-mode reflectometers
In this paper we present experimental results demonstrating the potential for mode group selection based on axial mismatch of optical fibers for few-mode optical reflectometry.

Kirill Volkov, Vladimir Burdin, Anton Bourdine, Oleg Delmukhametov and Evgenia Eremchuk
Model based on Prony decomposition for mode coupling of optical fibers of a cable delivery length
The paper presents a model based on the Prony decomposition for calculating mode coupling coefficients in optical fiber at the cable delivery length based on measurements of bond distributions or on the basis of modeling irregular optical fiber distributions. Examples are given of calculating the dependences of the normalized coupling coefficients of the modes at the construction length on the frequency detuning of the dominant decomposition component. The presented analysis allows us to talk about the potential possibilities of the proposed model, although, of course, it requires experimental verification.

Ekaterina Ushakova, Alexander Dorogov and Dmitry Zimnyakov
Low-coherence reflectometry of random media: basis approaches to data processing
A technique of low-coherence reflectometry (LCR) of multiple scattering random media is discussed. Two approaches to analysis of LCR data, which are applied depending on the ratio between the maximal probe depth and the characteristic scale of diffuse propagation of a probe light in a medium, are considered. The examples of application of both approaches to diagnostics of various random media are presented.

Albert Mingazov, Leonid Doskolovich, Dmitry Bykov and Evgeni Bezus
Optimal mass transportation problem in the design of freeform optical elements generating far-field irradiance distributions for plane incident beam
We consider the problem of calculating a refracting surface generating a prescribed irradiance distribution in the far field in the case of a plane incident beam. We demonstrate that this problem can be formulated as a mass transportation problem (MTP) and obtain the cost function for the MTP. We propose effective method of calculating a refracting surface based on MTP. We give the example of calculating of the refractive surface which forms a chessboard pattern.

Albert Mingazov, Leonid Doskolovich and Dmitry Bykov
The two reflector design problem for forming flat wavefront from a point source
The article deals with the problem of calculating of two reflecting surfaces which form a given distribution of illumination with a flat wavefront, provided that a point source of light is used. The notion of a weak solution for a given problem is formulated and it is proved the equivalence of this problem and the optimal mass tranfer problem.

Vladimir Lukin

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